Human phenotypic differences are grouped into categories that we currently refer to as race and how humans relate to the concept of race go deeper than the obvious outer appearances. Colonization, slavery, the creation of a hierarchical order by people of European descent, and the eugenics movement have resulted in the widespread phenomenon that humans are genetically distinct and can therefore be genetically inferior.  By revisiting the past, it is evident that race was built on immoral subjugation and discrimination. In light of all the historical battles and misfortunes caused by slavery, segregation, and eugenics in the United States and the holocaust in Germany, it is important to consider if the concept of race even adequately describes human biological variation.

A strong argument for the continued employment of the racial categories is that it serves an important function in the medical world or even for cardiology in Michigan practices, to help determine differences in patterns of disease susceptibility of racial groups.  However, race does not include the great amount of variation that exists within the categorizations or the influence of environmental conditions. Overall, race does not prove to be an accurate categorization of biological variation, but rather “self-reported ancestry”, as suggested by Bamshad and Olson in an article on race in Scientific American, would be a more scientifically and genetically oriented approach, and therefore more appropriate for medicine and science.

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